In trying to learn how man developed, scientists study whatever remains of a prehistoric man they can find. These include tools, cooking utensils, skeletons, and parts of the body.
In 1856, the remains of men were dug from a limestone cave in the Neander George in Germany. These were the first complete skeletons ever found of prehistoric men, and this was because these people buried their dead.
Neanderthal people probably lived for about 70,000 years in central Asia, the Middle East, and many parts of Europe. This was in a period of about 150,000 to 30,000 years ago.
What was a Neanderthal man like? He was heavy and stocky. His skull was flat. His face was long with a heavy jaw. He did not have much chin or forehead. Probably the earliest Neanderthal people lived when the climate was warm, between glacial periods. But then another ice age came and they began to live in caves and learned how to fight the cold.
There are many hearts in the caves that have been found which show that these people used fire to keep warm and protect themselves. They also may have cooked their meat.
Neanderthal man not only had hand axes but he also had “flake” tools. These are tools that were made of broad, thin flakes of flint with a good, sharp edge.
Some of the flake tools were points in the shape of rough triangles. They probably served as knives for skinning and cutting up animals. Neanderthal hunters may have also have used pointed wooden spears.
Now here is one very curious thing about Neanderthal man: he had a larger brain than modern man has!